第章 上孕妇的滋味第章 上孕妇的滋味 -- The next generation of biodiesel technology -- CTER "Continuous Trans Esterification Reactor" technology opens a new chapter in biodiesel production: up to 50% lower cost of investment, turn-key modules the size of a container, multi-feed-stock technology, production capacity 5000 to 100,000 mt/a or more, high quality fuel according to EN 14214 standard. Email: email@example.com
Biofuel Systems provides state-of-the-art biodiesel process equipment which meets all recognised international safety standards (eg. ATEX) and will produce biodiesel from a range of feedstocks to meet recognised standards, including ASTM 6751-03, EN 14214:2003, DIN V 51606. Currently offers systems from 900 litres per week upwards. Available in Australasia through New Zealand Biofuels Limited, and in the rest of world direct from Biofuel Systems, 58 Church Street, Ormskirk, Lancashire, ENGLAND L39 3AW. Fax: +44 1695 571222 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
BioDiesel International of Austria uses re-esterification in its multi-feedstock production system to handle fresh and/or waste oils and/or animal fats with as much as 20% fatty acids, with no loss of free fatty acids, 0% wastes, 0% waste water and no disposal costs, resulting in pure biodiesel plus glycerine plus fertilizer (potassium phosphate).
Ageratec Sweden makes automated biodiesel processors using sequence controllers, ranging from 800 to 8,000 liters capacity.
The Austrian Biofuels Institute -- an international centre of competence for liquid biofuels: Production: feasibility studies, process technologies for biofuels, project management; Feedstock supply: oilseed plant production and breedin, oil-mill technologies, waste oil recycling, logistic systems for waste oil collection. All countries of the European Union, supports biofuels business projects worldwide.
Pacific Biodiesel -- Plant installation -- two configurations: 200,000 gallons/year (750,000 liters/year), expandable in 200,000 gallons/year increments to maximum 800,000 gallons/year (3,000,000 liters/year); or 400,000 gallons/year (1,500,000 liters/year) expandable in 400,000 gallons/year increments to maximum 1,600,000 gallons/year (6,000,000 liters/year). Telephone: (808) 877-3144, Fax: (808) 871-5631, email@example.com, Contact Bob King, President firstname.lastname@example.org
Superior Process Technologies, USA -- Multi-feedstock biodiesel processing technology, turn-key engineering and design services. "Superior's biodiesel technology offers the highest efficiency and is scalable from the largest continuous processing facilities in the world to small-scale alternative feedstock facilities." Contact: sales@SuperiorProcessTech.com
There are as yet no small-scale ready-made biodiesel processors on the market that are worth having. See for instance this message to the Biofuel mailing list: Re: [biofuel] Best Processer: "You could make an excellent processor plus more than 8,000 gallons of high-quality biodiesel for that price."
See Biofuel Systems and Ageratec for small professional systems (Biodiesel technology section, above). For homebrewer-scale processors, build your own, it's easy and safe. There's a variety of types and designs here: Biodiesel processors.
SRI Instruments supplies Low Cost Gas Chromatographs, used for biodiesel quality testing. Also sells pre-owned equipment. 20720 Earl StreetTorrance, Calif. 90503 U.S.A. Telephone: (310) 214-5092 Fax: (310) 214-5097. (Information from Steve Woolcott, HarvestEnergy, Sydney, Australia)
For Biodiesel quality testing
See: NIR Helps Turn Vegetable Oil into High-Quality Biofuel
Dr Gerhard Knothe, of ARS, USDA, is willing to help users implement NIR testing for biodiesel. E-mail: email@example.com
NIR equipment suppliers
(Information from Steve Woolcott, HarvestEnergy, Sydney, Australia, and Steve Spence of WebConX)
ISOChem Near Infrared Analyzer from LT Industries
Grating Spectrophotometer, absorption photometer
Grabner Instruments: IROX Diesel -- Diesel Analysis with FTIR Technology
The Sunflower Seed Huller and Oil Press -- by Jeff Cox (from Organic Gardening, April 1979, Rodale Press): Vegetable oils used to be one of those items you just HAD to buy. Now here's how to make your own. In 2,500 square feet, a family of four can grow each year enough sunflower seed to produce three gallons of homemade vegetable oil suitable for salads or cooking and 20 pounds of nutritious, dehulled seed -- with enough broken seeds left over to feed a winter's worth of birds. Online at the Journey to Forever Biofuels Library.
Hela Mk II
The Sundhara oil expeller, designed in Germany for use in Nepal, now made in Nepal and Zimbabwe -- 60-70kg/hr (about 15 litres of oil). At the Jatropha Website:
Equipment For Decentralised Cold Pressing of Oil Seeds -- the Folkecenter for Renewable Energy, Denmark -- 64-page report, detailed descriptions and diagrams, mostly mid-range presses from 80kg/hr and up.
PDF -- Acrobat file, 917k
Briquette Presses for Alternate Fuel Use, by Jason Dahlman with Charlie Forst, 2001 -- Design for a simple briquette press that can also be used as an oil press for seeds. Acrobat file, 2.8Mb
The Jatropha System -- many oilseed presses detailed here, see "Oil extraction":
Small-scale electric screw presses to press oil from seeds from T?bypressen in Sweden.
Tinytech Plants -- Tiny Oil Mill, oil expeller with cooking kettle, Groundnut Decorticator, Sunflower Cracker or Palm Nut Cracker, Copra Cutter, made in Rajkot, India. Includes oil expeller, electrical cooking kettle with digital temperature controller, filter press, electric motor 10 HP, spare parts kit etc. Crushing capacity of 3 tonnes in 24 hours. Can be run with diesel motor. For edible oil or making bio diesel -- green energy and electricity generation. Working successfully in 52 countries. The company follows Gandhian Appropriate Technology principles. Contact: E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
KOMET Vegetable Oil Expeller, IBG Monforts in Germany -- range covers small hand-operated as well as powered machines. Virtually all oil-bearing seeds, nuts, and kernels can be pressed with the standard equipment without cumbersome adjusting of screws and oil outlet holes. The vegetable oil produced generally needs no refining, bleaching, or deodorizing. Big nuts, kernels, and copra (dried coconut meat) have to be crushed to the particle size of peas on the KOMET Cutting Machine "System CRUSHER". IBG Monforts:
India's United Oil Mill Machinery & Spares Pvt. Ltd manufactures and exports an entire range of machinery and equipment for small, medium and large capacity oil mills for seed preparation, oil expelling, filtration and refining. Oil expellers for extraction of oil from any oil-bearing seed, capacities from 1 ton to 150 tons per day (24 hours); other machinery/equipment with matching capacities.
- Tiger Mk I Oil Expeller, all steel construction, fitted with steel gears and pinions, fitted with steam heating kettle with electricals, capacity 2 tons per day (24 hours). US$7,500-00
- Tiger Mk II Oil Expeller, all steel construction, fitted with steel gears and pinions, fitted with steam heating kettle with electricals, capacity 3-4 tons per day (24 hours). US$9,500-00
- Exceoil Mk 2 Automatic Oil Expeller, all steel construction with double reduction helical gear box with steam kettle complete with electricals, capacity 8-10 tons per day (24 hours). US$15,000-00
Prices F.O.B. Indian port. Also manufactures the Wolf baby oil expeller with a capacity of 1 ton per day , caste-iron construction. Email: email@example.com
Dong Kwang Oil Machine Co., South Korea -- automatic edible oil presses, from 10kg/hr up. For sesame seed, sunflower, palm kernel, cacao, coconut (copra), olive, castor, cotton seed, maize (germ), rice bran, almond (germ), apricot (germ), soya bean, Chinese tung (germ), walnut, peanut, linseed, rape seed, perilla seed, mustard, etc.
SWEA A/S, Denmark. Double-screw oil press, 30 kg seed/hour, oil yield 25-38%, 6-10 litres oil/hour and approx. 21 kg cake depending on the quality of the seed.
HYBREN A/S, Denmark. Mini single-screw press, integrated with full automatic pellet boiler. Adjustable oil yield depending on relation heat demand/fuel demand. Website in Danish:
BT Maskinfabrik, Denmark. Single-screw press, four different models from approx. 4 to 100kg seed/h, oil yield 30-35%
"Small-scale Oilseed Processing" by Janet Bachmann, NCAT Agriculture Specialist, Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural Areas (ATTRA) -- Basic processes involved in small-scale oilseed processing, includes a low-tech method for raw material preparation using sunflower seeds as an example; information on methods and equipment used for oil extraction; notes on clarification, packaging, and storage. Sources for additional information and a list of suitable raw material.
PDF version (426 kb):
"The Manual Screw Press for Small-Scale Oil Extraction" by Kathryn H. Potts, Keith MacHell, 1993, Intermediate Technology, ISBN 1853391980
Manual oil extraction from peanuts or other soft oilseeds can be a viable enterprise for small businesses. Describes small-scale processes of oil extraction for use in rural areas, as well as ways to market and distribute the oilcake. From IT Publishing:
"Small-scale Vegetable Oil Extraction", S W Head, A A Swetman, T W Hammonds, A Gordon, K H Southwell and R V Harris, Natural Resources Institute, 1994, ISBN 0 85954 387-0 -- Covers a basic understanding of the science and composition of oils and economic and marketing considerations, principles of oil extraction, basic oilseed processing methods, the major oil sources with specific small and intermediate technologies for each. Results from actual third world situations are used. For example, the discussion of obtaining oil from sesame seed covers a hot water flotation method used in Uganda and Sudan, the bridge press (laboratory only), the ram press in Tanzania, the ghani process in Sudan, and a small-scale expeller in the Gambia. Technical details for each are summarized in a few paragraphs, including oil yields. Includes many drawings that are helpful in understanding each process, with a 14-page appendix listing suppliers of small-scale equipment. From ITDG:
Understanding Pressure Extraction of Vegetable Oils, VITA Technical Paper #40, by VITA Volunteers James William Casten and Harry E. Snyder
Understanding Solvent Extraction of Vegetable Oils, VITA Technical Paper # 41, by VITA Volunteer Nathan Kessler
Yields: Typical oil extraction from 100 kg. of oil seeds:
Castor Seed 36 kg
Copra 62 kg
Cotton Seed 13 kg
Groundnut Kernel 42 kg
Mustard 35 kg
Palm Kernal 36 kg
Palm Fruit 20 kg
Rapeseed 37 kg
Sesame 50 kg
Soyabean 14 kg
Sunflower 32 kg
In the US, try race circuits.
"Contact any bulk, liquid fuels distributor for 55 gallon lots or better. Any bulk propane distributorship should be willing to tell you where they get their methanol from. It's used as a carrier for water, aka a "drying agent."
"For smaller lots speak with the management of any speed shop. Their customer base is largely dependant upon methanol availability. If you know anyone who races, they may be willing to part with small quantities.
"Also look on the net for distributors of Sunoco Race Fuels. These distributors have access to unblended methanol in all quantities." -- Todd Swearingen, Appal Energy, at the Biofuel mailing list.
Dyce Chemical Inc. -- 1353 Taylor Pl., Billings MT, USA (406) 248-3131 -- 99+% methanol available in 55-gallon drums only. Call center (Pennsylvania) 888-926-4151. Sales (Montreal) 514-636-9230.
VP Racing Fuels sells pure methanol and has a world-wide distribution network.
Hiperfuels -- Methanol, 5-gallon containers, buy online, delivery by UPS/Fedex. Houston, Texas, USA. Phone 713 305-3133, Contact Jess Hewitt, firstname.lastname@example.org
Methanex -- one of the largest suppliers in the world. Sales inquiries email@example.com. Phone (800) 661-8851 (toll free in North America), (604) 661-2600 Fax (604) 661-2676. Mail 1800 Waterfront Centre, 200 Burrard Street, Vancouver, BC, V6C 3M1, CANADA.
Current Methanol Prices Worldwide
Methanex has filed a NAFTA case for US $1 billion over California's decision to phase out the noxious gasoline additive MTBE. "Methanex company is attempting to hold taxpayers hostage to the tune of nearly $1 billion, or 1.2 percent of our state budget, because we had the nerve to ban a product that was contaminating water supplies all over the state" -- Earthjustice. See "Challenge of California MTBE Ban Shows How NAFTA Grants Foreign Corporations Greater Rights Than Local Communities and Businesses":
See also: MTBE
To dehydrate ethanol to make ethyl esters biodiesel, use Type 3A Molecular Sieve, 4-8 mesh, which absorbs about 20% of its weight of water in a few hours. Take a liter of 95% ethanol, throw in 250g of the zeolite, swirl occasionally, filter out the next day through a strainer. US$2.05 a pound in 10 lb quantities, and reusable indefinitely. Drive off the water under a broiler for an hour. From Adcoa, 1269 Eagle Vista Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90041. In California: (310) 532-6086. Outside California: Toll Free 800-228-4124. Fax (310) 532-5404. (Information provided by Ken Provost.)
See Anhydrous ethanol
Very cheap testers can be a false economy. Good instruments are available for a reasonable price. It's worthwhile to spend a bit extra and get one with a replaceable electrode.
Testing oil -- There are special pH meters made for testing fossil oil products, and they're very expensive. You don't need them for making biodiesel -- all regular pH meters work in natural oils! Measurement takes about 30 seconds in water and up to two minutes in oils. After measuring oils wash the electrode carefully with dishwashing soap and rinse thoroughly, first with tap water and finally with a little distilled water. Never use solvents to clean an epoxy electrode -- solvents are only needed if you sample mineral oil products.
ElectrodesDirect.com -- Factory-direct supplier of pH, ORP, Conductivity, CO2, Dissolved Oxygen, Ion Selective and Titration electrodes, meters, and monitors. The retailing window of the largest electrode manufacturers in the world. If you can't find a direct factory replacement in the product listings, send in the technical details of your electrode or application. Supplies electrodes, meters and controllers and more, handheld meters, pocket meters: pHep Pocket pH Testers, from $57.00, pHep 3 model is waterproof with temperature compensation, range 0.0 to 14.0 pH, resolution 0.1 pH, accuracy +/- 0.1 pH, calibration automatic 1 or 2 points. Worldwide sales ex USA. Online customer support: firstname.lastname@example.org
Davis Instruments -- pH Checker with Epoxy Electrode & Batteries, US$ 34.50 -- Accuracy: Better than 0.2pH. Wide Range: 0 to 14pH with 0.01 reading. Long battery life (3000 hrs).
Fisher Scientific -- Corning Chekmite handheld electronic pH Testers - Follow the path: Catalogs > Fisher Catalog > pH/pX > Meters > Corning > Corning Chekmite* pH Testers
Hagen -- Hagen Wide-Range pH Test Kit, measures pH 4.5-9.0, enough for 100 tests (a user has found you can use half the sample size -- 2.5 ml instead of 5 ml -- and half the number of drops of reagent -- 2 instead of 4 -- to halve the cost)
Hanna Instruments, Inc. -- pHep® simple, inexpensive pocket pH meters, three models, US$33.60 to $39.50, range 0.0 to 14.0 pH, resolution 0.1 pH, accuracy ±0.2 pH to ±0.1 pH. Website has worldwide branch contact details.
Omega Engineering -- PHH-7X pH Tester with replaceable electrode, 0.01 pH resolution, 3000- hour battery life, $35.00. Also sells 4.01, 7.01 and 10.01 buffer sollution (calibration fluid), $5 each, a must for brand-new pH testing units.
Techtips on pH from Eutech:
Introduction to pH and pH Measurement
Top Ten Frequently Asked Questions for pHScan Testers
DOs & DON'Ts
Cleaning & Reconditioning Electrodes
pH Electrode Care and Maintenance
Temperature Compensation for pH Meters
Typical Problems in Industrial pH Measurement & Control - Part I
Typical Problems in Industrial pH Measurement & Control - Part II
Useful information on Maintenance, Troubleshooting and FAQ in Technical section at the ElectrodesDirect.com website:
Natural test papers -- Cabbage Paper is made of red cabbage leaves -- alkalis change it to green, acids to red. Here's how to make it, and many others.
Other pH testing methods are phenolphthalein solution from a chemical supplies company -- not "phenol red" -- and pH test papers, which come in various ranges.
High-quality bubble stones for biodiesel washing -- instead of plastic these are sintered bronze and won't be affected by alcohol. Listed as sintered bronze muffler filters 40 micron. Sized from 1/8 to 3/4" pipe size fitting, $1.62 to $5.24 US plus S&H. MSC Industrial Supply Co. Phone 1 800 645 7270. Email email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org for technical enquiries. (Found by Gene Hoxie, Sheridan Wy.)
Try pneumatic exhaust silencers, used to quiet exhaust air from air tools or other air / pneumatic systems. They don't rot, they're cheap and they work very well.
PumpBiz is an international distributor of over 9,000 pumps. "We have been selling pumps to many biodiesel customers over the years. We also pride ourselves in being true pump engineers with lots of knowledge about pump design and pump applications." Centrifugal pumps, magdrive pumps, diaphragm pumps, vertical, magnetic drive, metering pumps, drum barrel pumps, gear pumps, multistage pumps, self-priming trash pumps, peristaltic pumps, jet irrigation pumps and ANSI-standard pumps. "AskHenry? Through our patent-pending 12-step process, he'll determine – online, 24x7 - the right pump for your application."
Pumps FAQ from PumpBiz -- General Pump Information:
1. Main characteristics to be considered
2. Impeller Diameter and RPM
3. Pump Characteristic Performance curve
4. Brake Horsepower
6. Time, Temperature and Pressure effects
Little Giant pump -- "This 115 volt pump will handle SVO or heated WVO, biodiesel and water. Originally designed by Little Giant as a solvent pump. Relatively fast, about 300 gph on veg oil. Best little durable, all around pump that your money can buy. Intake and outlets are 1/2" NPT, making plumbing into small diameter systems a snap." - Todd Swearingen, Appal Energy
Pony Pump from Flotec -- 115V 360 GPH Self-Priming, Model# 50AC110B, Wt. 5.0 lbs, Item# 109730, $49.99
1" Clear Water Pump -- Popular as a mixing pump with biodieselers, but note that this pump is too small for reactors processing more than 100 litres/25 gallons per batch.
Harbor Freight Tools -- 1" Clear Water Pump -- Item 1479-1VGA
Northern Tools -- Cast Iron 1in. Clear Water Pump, Model# 109955
(Warning -- very BAD at dealing with international orders!)
Northern Tool & Equipment Co. (UK) Ltd. -- 1" Clear Water Pump, Item No. 109955E
Collecting used oil
From Todd Swearingen of Appal Energy: "Best method I've seen yet for collecting oil is a vacuum pump similar to what you'll find on septic service trucks. See: Enhanced Self-Priming Pump
"Trash pumps work on warm days and can handle burger patties well. It's when the evening chills and you're trying to move pudding that they come up
lacking. But if you're moving as much oil as a trash pump or vacuum pump can handle in the summer, the easiest thing to do in winter is switch to a process of exchanging dumpsters, removing full ones to a warm shop."
Diesel-Therm "prevents the filter's pores from clogging up at very low temperatures by warming the fuel with a small heating system, which is mounted in front of the filter. In a matter of seconds, the energy-rich paraffin crystals will dissolve and the fuel passes through the filter as if it were summer."
Racor Diesel Fuel Heaters -- from Parker Hannifin Corp.'s Racor Division -- Heavy-duty In-Fuel-Line Diesel Heater comes installed inside a new fuel line and literally replaces the fuel line between tank and primary filter. It prevents power loss and stalls, and assists starting down to -40°F. This heated path is recommended for extended use in cold weather environments and severe conditions.
-- from Mid-Atlantic Engine Supply Corp, Cinnaminson, New Jersey.
Racor filters -- from Racor Division (Parker Online Catalog)
-- from J & H Diesel Service, Inc., Greenville, MississippiUSA
Arctic Fox Hotline Electric In-Line Fuel Heater -- Fuel warmer with internal heat tape in the fuel hose. Before starting, thaw frozen diesel fuel in just 3 to 5 minutes. Can work in conjunction with coolant heaters. 12 or 24 Volt, controlled by a switch on the dash, optional thermostat control.
Arctic Fox Hot Fox Fuel Warmer -- Simple 1-1&Mac218;2 " (38mm) diameter stainless steel tube inserts in the tank through a standard USA fuel gauge sending unit opening. Coolant passages inside the tube surround the fuel standpipe to provide excellent heat rise. (Assumes you're also using a block heater or coolant heater.)
Pour-point depressants, winterising equipment
Vegetable oil filter cones are made of "Pelon", a generic term which can be cotton fiber but is more often synthetic, the longer-lived usually being synthetic. It can include adhesive versions of both ("fusible pelon"). Both cotton and synthetic Pelon run between 1.5 and 1.75 ounce for filters. Standard Pelon is usually 1.25 ounce. The thicker Pelons can be found in any upholstery supply warehouse in 48" or 96" bolts. -- Todd Swearingen, Appal Energy.
Slip-On Filter Bags: 7" x 18" x 11" 20. Part# 9830K11 -- 10 or more, $1.75 each. McMaster-Carr Catalog , Page 331:
Filter Mesh to Micron Conversion Chart
Lamps and stoves: Biodiesel does not travel up a wick very well, like kerosene or heating oil will, so it can't be used for ordinary wick lamps or stoves. However, tests have found that it will travel about 7cm up a wick but not more than that, and the wick should preferably be thick (about 1cm) and loosely wound -- tightly-woven commercial wicks won't work well. Biodiesel also might not work in heating furnaces or stoves, though some models work just fine, and others can be adjusted.
BriteLyt Petromax multi-fuel lanterns work just fine with biodiesel. "We are happy to report that the burn-time was over 8 hours, at the highest setting, and you did not have to re-pressurize the lantern as often as you would using other fuel-types. The performance was great, and the lantern was just as bright, and there was NO SMELL. Using the product inside, we noticed no smell at all." The lanterns also work with ethanol. 150CP lanterns, run up to 20 hours,1 pint of fuel, approx 100-watts; 500CP lanterns, approx 400-watts. There's a stove-top accessory so you can cook with them too.
We've been using biodiesel in this kerosene pressure stove for nearly two years. See one burning biodiesel here. These stoves are common in 3rd World countries ("roarers"), but they're rare in industrialised countries. Ours came from India and it cost US$8. Here are some stoves you can buy on the Internet, but not for $8.
BriteLyt Multi-Fuel Brass Pressure Stove. Same family as the BriteLyt-Petromax multifuel pressure lantern, which can burn biodiesel or ethanol. The stove has an adjustable burner, with preheater and lantern parts and a pressure indicator. Preheats in same manner as the BriteLyt-Petromax lantern. Empty weight 4lbs, fuel capacity approx. 1 qt., 8K-10K BTUs, runs 5-6 hours, on oil base fuels. Polished Brass, Matte Finish on Brass, or Nickel Plated Brass, price: $75.00.
Brass Pressure Stove -- 8.5 inches wide and 7.5 inches tall, disassembles quickly, produces around 8,000 btu, runs on kerosene or diesel fuel. Available in the US via the Internet, priice $48. No wicks, it holds a little more than a pint of fuel and will run 3-4 hours on one tankful.
XGK? Expedition Stove: "This stove is tough enough to handle any fuel—white gas, kerosene and even poor quality diesel, to name a few."
WhisperLite Internationale? 600: Multi-fuel burning lightweight camping stoves -- use MSR White Gas, kerosene, jet fuel or auto gas.
Optimus NOVA Multifuel Expedition Stove -- The burner capacity is enough to prepare meals for two persons in extreme conditions. Multifuel technology means that you will find fuel anywhere in the world. Appr. 2.850 Watts/9,700 BTU. Burning time: Up to 2.5 hours at high output (one filling=0.45 L /15.5 fl.oz.).
Optimus HIKER Multifuel Expedition Stove -- "The Himalaya Stove". The Hiker is a multifuel stove, wherever you go, you will be able to find fuel for your Hiker. No conversion needed between ordinary fuels (when using methylated spirits/alcohol, simply change the burner jet). Fuels: Kerosene/paraffin, white gasoline/petrol, diesel oil, methylated alcohol/spirits and Coleman fuel. Appr. 3.000 watts/10.000 BTU. Burning time: Up to 2 hours on one filling (0.35 litres/12 oz.) at high output.
Some people use viscosity measures to check the "quality" of their biodiesel. Unfortunately, it won't tell you that, excepting in a laboratory with highly accurate equipment, and even then it would be only a part-indication. Impurities such as mono- and di-glycerides have viscosity values close to those of biodiesel, and the small quantities that make all the difference between poor and good conversion can't be measured this way at the homebrew-level. Viscosity can be a useful comparative indicator, especially when doing test batches. See Viscosity testing.
The Marsh Funnel Viscometer is a simple device for indicating viscosity on a routine basis. When used with a measuring cup, the funnel gives an empirical value for the consistency of a fluid. From Fann Instrument Company, Part No. 20100. (With thanks to Huseyin Turcan.)
Visgage® Pocket Viscosity Comparator oil viscosity testing instrument -- the VISGAGE checks oil viscosity on-site quickly and conveniently, without thermometers or stop watches. It can be used to check any oil from light spindle oil to heavy gear oils. Simple to operate, accuracy of 95% or better.Made by Louis C. Eitzen Company, Inc. , email: sales@Visgage.com
You can make your own viscosity meter. Aleks Kac offered this advice to a Biofuel mailing list member struggling to get his home furnace working with biodiesel:
Kinematic viscosity is measured in "Stokes". You cannot measure it at home without a viscosimeter. There is a comparative way, though. Take a liquid with a known viscosity value (petroleum heating oil, look the value up in an engineering manual) and let a known volume flow through an upside-down plastic water bottle with a drinking straw glued in a hole in the screw top. Stop the time with a stopwatch. Do the same with your biodiesel (same volume) and compare the results. Generally a smaller diameter straw will produce more accurate results. If the time of your sample is 1.5 the time of your control sample (petroleum oil), this means its viscosity is roughly 1.6-ish that of the control sample. -- Aleks Kac, 6 Nov 2001.
You can use two straws, the second one to let air in for a smooth flow of oil -- see how we do it with small test batches of methoxide: Adding the methoxide
Atago refractometers. With Auto Temp Compensation: ATC-1E: Y20,000; ATC-2E: Y21,000. Manual adjustment: Model N-1E, Y14,000; N-2E Y15,000. Heat resistant: H-50 and H-80, both Y25,000. 32-10 Honcho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-0001, Japan. Phone 81-3-3964-6131, Fax 81-3-3964-6137, E-mail: email@example.com
Sugar Refractometers from Cole-Parmer:
Tony Ackland explains what you need at the Home Distillation of Alcohol (Homemade Alcohol) site -- thermometers, hydrometers, fermenters, etc.
The Revenoor Co. -- Stills ranging from 5 gallons to 1,000 gallons, and an interesting, 3,500-word introductory article on producing alcohol as a fuel from veteran distiller Terry Wilhelm.
New Zealand commercial suppliers Spirits Unlimited, mail order:
Ray Toms' Moonshine Supplies -- Ray "in his own humble opinion is the best person to help you with any brewing problems you may come across". Mail order New Zealand and world-wide (local law is your problem). Hydrometers, Hyper Yeast, Turbo Yeast, other yeasts, and much more:
Gert Strand AB -- Distillers Yeast, including Turbo Yeast 20%, plus useful turbo yeast FAQ. Order Online (freight takes two weeks, from Sweden). E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Brewhaus Inc. -- Gert Strand AB's distributor in North America. E-mail: email@example.com
The Brewery's Technical Library for articles on brewing related topics -- see Yeasts.
Ashcroft Bimetal Thermometers
WIKA Bimetal Thermometers
OAKTON Instruments -- pH meters, thermometers and other equipment: "best quality waterproof instruments, many for under US$100, available from stock from a wide variety of distributors".
Penn Bradshaw water regulating valve, part number is nsv47ab-4. Johnstone Supply, Chattanooga TN. Phone 1 800 5250387, Price US$229.00, pay by credit card.
Danfoss Model AVTA: -25 to +130 C, with +50 to +90 C capillary bulb, opening on rising temp. (can be reversed), differential pressure 0 to 10 bar, max test pressure 25 bar, accuracy of 1% either side.
POR-15 -- General rust-proofing, repairing leaking fuel tanks, protecting steel biodiesel processors from corrosion, and more -- a permanent solution.
"POR-15® was tested for 168 hours at 97°F in a condensing humidity salt spray (ASTM B117). At the end of the test period, coated steel was free of rust or pitting. Acid and alkali resistance tests performed found panels coated with POR-15® to be impervious to gasoline, oil, chromic acid, hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid, sodium hydroxide, caustic soda, 50% sulfuric acid, and 50% hydrofluoric acid. POR-15® was applied over a rusty substrate as a finish coat (approximately 23 mils dry film thickness). The coating showed essentially no undercutting at the scribed area after 2000 hours in a weatherometer.
"A 2 mil thickness of POR-15® was applied to lightly rusted steel and then exposed for 1000 hours to a salt spray. At the end of the test period, no undercutting was observed at the scribed area. Recoatability is excellent. Laboratory tests have shown very good adhesion when applied up to 14 days after application of the first coat. In an actual Field test, a topcoat was applied 6 weeks after the first coat had been applied, and the intercoat adhesion was excellent as determined by a crosshatch tape test. A metal box used as a filter for raw sewage was coated with POR-15® and placed in service within a few hours after the interior and exterior were coated. No visible rusting occurred at the welded areas after a six month exposure.
"A POR-15® coating was subjected to 700°F for 10 hours; it remained hard and showed no apparent loss of adhesion. A panel subjected to elongation was pulled beyond the yield point of the base metal without affecting the POR-15® coating."
We've used it, it works exactly as claimed.
How to remove all rust from steels tools and parts.
Universal Process Equipment, Inc. -- used gear at good prices: Evaporators, milling, reactors, extruders, mixers, fermenters, filtration, kilns, glass lined equipment, others, incinerators, complete processes, furnaces, glass lined equipment, heat exchangers, tanks, turbines, generators, centrifuges, chillers, compressors, dryers, boilers, pulverizers. Complete plants available. US-based, deals worldwide.
Diesel Engine Trader .com -- New, Remanufactured, Reconditioned diesel engines, Marine Industrial diesel engines, Marine diesel motors, Diesel engine spares -- the HUB for trading diesel engines, worldwide.
There's a good primer on Solder & Brazing at Tony Ackland's Home Distillation of Alcohol site:
The Brazing Book -- A well-known classic by Handy & Harman, now updated and online in full-text. For both the novice brazer and the seasoned engineer. Five main sections: Section One, "The Idea of Brazing," explains exactly what brazing is, where to use it, and how to perform it properly. Section Two, "Brazing in Action," presents detailed photographic case histories illustrating some of the many applications in which brazing is used today. Section Three, "Choices In Brazing Materials," plus technical reference tables and related information. Section Four, "Available Reference Materials." From The Precious Metals Fabrication Group.
About.com has two useful articles on soldering by Tammy Powl. The scale is a bit different -- Tammy's a jewelry maker -- but the principles are the same.
Step by Step Soldering
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En espa?ol -- Biocombustibles, biodiesel
Biofuels supplies and suppliers
Make your own biodiesel
Mike Pelly's recipe
Two-stage biodiesel process
FOOLPROOF biodiesel process
Biodiesel in Hong Kong
Nitrogen Oxide emissions
Biodiesel resources on the Web
Do diesels have a future?
Vegetable oil yields and characteristics
Biodiesel and your vehicle
Food or fuel?
Straight vegetable oil as diesel fuel
Ethanol resources on the Web
Is ethanol energy-efficient?